THE FOUR FUNDAMENTALS OF COFFEE

Proportion: Use the right proportion of coffee to water. This is the most important step in making great coffee. For the most flavourful cup of coffee, we recommend two tablespoons of ground coffee (10 - 14 grams) for each 180 milliliters of water. If coffee brewed this way is too strong for your taste, you can add a little hot water to your cup of brewed coffee. The shorter the brewing process, the finer the grind. Different brewing methods have different grind requirements, so grind your coffee for the brewing method you use. The amount of time the coffee and water spend together affects the flavour elements that end up in your cup of coffee, and the design of your coffee maker dictates how long the coffee and water sit in direct contact during the brewing process.

Water: Use fresh, cold water heated to just off the boil. A cup of coffee is 98 percent water. Therefore, the water you use to make coffee should taste clean, fresh, and free of impurities. Water heated to just off a boil (90° to 96° C) is perfect for extracting the coffee's full range of flavours. Any cooler and the water can't adequately do the job. Automatic coffee makers heat the water for you. Make sure the one you use gets the water hot enough.

Freshness: Use freshly ground coffee. Think of coffee as fresh produce. The enemies of coffee are oxygen, light, heat, and moisture. To keep coffee fresh, store it in an opaque, airtight container at room temperature. For the best results, coffee should be ground just before brewing. Whole bean coffee stays fresh longer because there is less surface area exposed to oxygen. By grinding beans each time you brew, the freshness is preserved.

STOVE-TOP EXPRESS ESPRESSO MAKER

1. Remove the top part of the espresso maker.
2. Remove the filter funnel insert.
3. Fill the lower part of the stove top espresso maker with cold fresh water. Do not fill past the safety valve!
4. Fill the filter funnel with ground coffee.
5. Put the filter funnel back into the lower part of the espresso maker.
6. Screw the top part back onto the lower part firmly.
7. Place espresso maker onto stove top (boil setting).
8. Remove espresso maker from stove immediately once the top part of the espresso maker is full with coffee (Careful, the espresso maker is hot!).
9. Enjoy the freshly brewed espresso!

COFFEE PRESS
1. Always try to use a coarser grind when brewing with a bodum or press pot. The longer the brewing time, the coarser the grind needs to be.
2. Add roughly 8.5 grams of ground coffee per 4oz / 118ml of water used.
3. Add hot (just off the boil) water steadily, saturating all the grounds by changing where the water falls.
4. Quickly stir the slurry; this is optional, but aids in complete extraction.
5. Add the filter assembly, and start counting. For a small pot, a two or three minute steep time would suit. For a larger model, stick with the four or five minute steep.
6. After the steep time is done, it's time to plunge down the filter. Grasp the handle firmly; get a solid grip on the plunger stick and start pressing down in an even, controlled manner, always keeping the plunger rod absolutely straight. If it goes crooked, grounds will escape into the upper portion.
7. When pouring with a press pot, it's always a good idea to hold on to the lid so things don't slide around or accidentally pop out.

AUTOMATIC DRIP COFFEE MACHINE

1. Use freshly ground coffee at a medium grind.
2. Use a filter that properly fits your machine. You may find it helpful to pour cold water through your filter first to remove any additives etc. that might taint your coffee.
3. Add roughly 10 grams of ground coffee per 4oz / 118ml (one cup) of water used.
4. Add cold, clean, fresh water.
5. Once your coffee has brewed, don't leave it sitting on the hot plate for too long as it will burn the coffee. Get a thermos to pour your fresh coffee in and enjoy over time.
6. It is very important to keep your drip machine very clean as this aids in creating your perfect cup of coffee.